Hardwood comparative tables

 

Working Properties

Sawing Planing Drilling Boring Turning Carving Moulding Nailing Screwing Gluing Finishing
Alder Good Good Good Good Excellent Good Good Good Good Good Excellent
Ash Good Good Good Good Excellent Good Good Good Good Good Excellent
Aspen Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Basswood Good Good Good Good Good Excellent Good Fair Fair Fair Excellent
Beech Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Birch Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Excellent
Cherry Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Good Good Excellent
Cottonwood Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Elm Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Excellent
Gum Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Excellent
Hackberry Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Good
Hickory & pecan Fair Good Fair Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Fair Excellent
Hard maple Excellent Good Good Excellent Excellent Good Good Fair Fair Good Excellent
Soft maple Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Good Good Good Good Good Good Excellent
Red oak Good Excellent Excellent Good Good Good Excellent Good Good Good Excellent
White oak Good Good Excellent Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Excellent
Sycamore Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Excellent
Tulipwood Good Excellent Good Good Good Good Excellent Good Good Good Excellent
Walnut Good Excellent Good Good Excellent Good Excellent Good Good Good Excellent
Willow Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Excellent Excellent
 

Main Uses


Doors Flooring Furniture Joinery Kitchen cabinets Mouldings and turnings Veneered panels Sports goods Tool handles
Alder



Ash
Aspen



Basswood



Beech
Birch


Cherry

Cottonwood



Elm

Gum


Hackberry

Hickory & pecan


Hard maple
Soft maple

Red oak
White oak
Sycamore


Tulipwood


Walnut

Willow

 

Physical & Mechanical Properties

  Specific gravity
(12% MC)
Average weight
(12% MC), Kg/m3
Average volumetric
shrinkage (Green to
6% MC), %
Modulus of
Rupture, MPa
Modulus of
Elasticity, MPa
Compressive strength
(parallel to grain), MPa
Hardness, N
Alder 0.41 449 10.1 67.571 9515 40.129 2624
Ash 0.60 673 6.2 103.425 11,997 51.092 5871
Aspen 0.38 417 9.2 57.918 8,136 29.304 1557
Basswood 0.37 417 12.6 59.987 10,067 32.613 1824
Beech 0.64 721 13.0 102.736 11,859 50.334 5782
Birch 0.62 689 13.4 114.457 13,859 56.332 5604
Cherry 0.50 561 9.2 84.809 10,274 49.023 4226
Cottonwood 0.40 449 11.3 58.608 9,466 33.854 1913
Elm 0.53 593 11.0 89.635 10,274 43.852 3825
Gum 0.52 545 12.0 86.188 11,308 43.576 3781
Hackberry 0.53 593 13.5 76.535 8,205 37.509 3914
Hickory 0.75 833 14.3 138.590 15,583 63.365 N/A
Pecan 0.66 737 N/A 94.462 11,928 54.126 8095
Hard maple 0.63 705 11.9 108.941 12,618 53.988 6450
Soft maple Acer rubrum 0.54 609 10.5 92.393 11,308 45.093 4225
Acer macrophyllum 0.48 545 9.3 73.777 9,998 41.025 3780
Red oak Quercus rubra 0.63 705 6.6 98.599 12,549 46.610 5738
Quercus falcatta 0.59 657 N/A 75.156 10,274 41.991 4715
White oak 0.68 769 12.6 104.804 12,273 51.299 6049
Sycamore 0.49 545 11.4 68.950 9,791 37.095 3425
Tulipwood 0.42 449 9.8 69.640 10,894 38.198 2402
Walnut 0.55 609 10.2 100.677 11,584 52.264 4492
Willow 0.39 417 11.5 53.800 6,960 28.300 N/A